Relocation of economic activity in Cluj County: The Making of a Service City Hinterlands
The cost and availability of the labor force needed in the circuits of production are strongly dependent on the cost of reproducing laborers. The availability and the costs of the means of subsistence have a major impact on the wage level. The combined income strategy as partial proletarization, i.e. combining minimum wage with informal resources generated by the household, did not lose its actuality during contemporary Romanian capitalism and is as widely used as during actually existing socialism in the same country. Yet the capitalist imperative of accumulation may produce new types of enclosure that run against the benefits of partial proletarization. Intensive agriculture with highly mechanized tools and animal husbandry for industrial purpose, while in need of land, makes redundant important parts of the rural labor force. It is a population that has increasingly less access to combine income strategies, because the land is integrated in global circuits of agricultural exploit. We focus on the city of Cluj, Romania, a second tire city in the urban hierarchy of Central Europe. In the last ten year it became one of the cities with one of the highest rate of white collar workers to blue collar workers in the region. While the city of Cluj retained most of the highly skilled jobs, the county of Cluj witnessed a sharp increase in industrial, transportation, logistics and construction jobs. Using census data and accounting data at company level we discuss the economic geography of regional relocation in the county of Cluj.