Investigation of landscape load caused by mining activities on a Hungarian industrial region
The main aim of the investigation is to determine the landscape load index of the single landscapes based on the example of a selected sample area. In the course of the determination of the indices the type of the raw material and extraction, the recent or past activity of the mining claims and their size provided the base of the evaluation; in addition, also geoinformatical methods contributed to the assessment. The sample area once was a significant mining region; among several raw materials especially the importance of its brown coal and basalt mining was overriding. The landscape-forming impact of the mines, together with the former – by now mostly abandoned –industrial plants settled on these raw materials up to now determines the image and character of the landscape both in direct and indirect way. By using the elaborated load indices it is possible to summarize and rank the impacts and consequences, and, on the other hand, the indices promote to recognize what kind of landscape conflicts exist caused by mining land-use, what is the level of these conflicts and what are their after-effects in the investigated landscape. In addition, the determination of these indices contributes to establishing a qualitative database, as well, which promotes the investigation of the impacts of the mining activity from the point of view of the landscapes. The results of the research are to be used in practice, too, because revealing of the landscape conflicts by indices can promote to the reclamation of the landscapes and can contribute for making plans for the optimum usage of the landscape for the self-governments and for other officials and local authorities.