Spatio-temporal variability of pipes development in a mountainous area under a temperate climate (Polish Bieszczady Mts., Eastern Carpathians)
Piping refers to the mechanical removal of subsurface soil by concentrated water flow, causing the formation of underground channels – pipes. The development of pipes may result in the collapse of soil surface and formation of blind (discontinuous) gullies. The significance of piping in gully erosion has been recognized quite well. However, research about dynamics of piping forms development is still limited. Therefore, this paper aimed at better understanding of spatio-temporal variability of pipes development by measuring pipes over 2 years using electronic total station (Topcon Hiper II). The measurements were performed twice a year (after spring thaw and after summer rainfalls) in 2013-2014. The longitudinal profiles of piping systems were repeatedly done. The survey was carried out in the selected piping systems in the Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians), where pipes develop in Cambisols. The research allowed to indicate the direction of pipes development and point out the most active element of piping systems. The development of selected piping systems will be continued up to the total collapse of pipes. The material is supplied to the piping systems primarily in a spring thaw, whereas is discharged during summer rainfalls.