Marginality and dependency – Changing social and economic functions of rural spaces with scattered farmsteads and its drivers
The phenomenon of marginalisation occurs when compared to mainstream serious differences evolve in the organisation model and functioning of the society. The consequences of the permanently unsuccessful re-integration intentions are the social, economic and spatial isolation of certain places/areas (GIDDENS, A. 1984, LEIMBURGER, W. 2007, SOMMERS, L.M. – MEHRETU, A. 1998). This process reduces chances of market access of local actors, makes more difficult the access to transport and communication systems, which is exacerbated the lower level of public services. Isolation also limits articulation of interest and greatly reduces the bargaining power of people living in the affected area, which further strengthens the different characteristics and daily routines differ from mainstream. These factors reinforcing each other lead to political, economic and social dependency. This can be observed in uneven exchange relations, competitive handicap getting development funds, deterioration in the quality of public services and in permanently remaining accessibility problems.
Researches in marginalisation suggested, that economic transformation of rural areas is embedded in complex spatial and social relations. However, spaces with scattered farmsteads show a more specified picture, so in the case of social groups living in these areas, different mechanisms, drivers and reasons may determine the marginalization process compared to other areas.
The purpose of our research is to examine the socio-economic change of marginalised spaces with scattered farmsteads. During the research we reviewed the local and governmental re-integration and developmental attempts on settlements with scattered farmsteads in the outskirts, analyse and evaluate the effects of decisions made in different regional levels. The research has been supported by the National Research Fund, Hungary/ OTKA K109269.