“Environment to circulation” and “circulation to environment” approaches in the analysis of role of synoptic conditions and wind regime impact on PM concentration over the metropolitan area of Haifa, Israel
Relatively high Particle Matter (PM) concentrations, detected over the Middle East and Israel, are attributed to natural dust outbreaks as well as to local and remote anthropogenic sources. The spatio-temporal distribution of the pollution is highly dependent on the geographical characteristics of the region, such as the complex terrain of Haifa, the nearby bay structure and the atmospheric conditions determined by the combined meso-, local and synoptic-scale circulations. Yuval and Broday (2006) showed that while dust outbreak events are excluded, heavy traffic load is a main source for PM10 in the Haifa metropolitan area, though this area has major industrial plants, including the national petroleum refineries, petrochemical and agrochemical industries.
The present research analyzes the role of synoptic conditions and wind regime in the temporal and spatial distribution of PM10 and PM2.5. The “environment to circulation” approach is adopted (following Yarnal 1993, Yarnal et al. 2001 and Dayan and Tubi 2012) through the “pollution potential” regarded as percentage of exceeding days for each regional synoptic type. This is based on the classification of Alpert et al. (2004). In order to get insight into the relevant mechanisms, the diurnal evolution of the wind field for each synoptic type is derived and analyzed, expressing the “circulation to environment” approach.
Generally, exceeding days of PM are dominated by natural dust outbreaks even in this highly industrial area. However, its spatial distribution within the study area may point at the contribution of local sources. Detailed results will be further presented.