Intra-urban climate observations in two Central European cities based on one year network datasets
This study introduces urban climate monitoring systems implemented in Szeged, Hungary and Novi Sad, Serbia in 2014 and analyzes the first datasets of 2014-2015. In order to ensure a representative number and placement of stations, the selection of measurement sites was based on Local Climate Zone (LCZ) maps developed for both cities. During the processing of the incoming data (air temperature and relative humidity, as well as global radiation and wind speed) a human comfort index (Psychologically Equivalent Temperature) is calculated from these parameters with a neural network method, and the measured and calculated parameters are interpolated linearly into a regular grid with 500 m resolution. As the results show the largest intra-urban thermal differences between the LCZ areas occur in the nocturnal hours reaching even 5ºC. In the spatial distribution of human comfort conditions there are distinct differences in the strength of the loading between the neighbourhoods during the daytime. Overall, it can be stated that the monitoring networks are able to provide beneficial information for urban climate research and for the wider audience, too. They record data with proper spatial and temporal resolution and the accuracy of the sensors is satisfactory. Based on our evaluation the site selection was successful, as the temperature has different characteristics at sites with differently classified environment. The planned operation time of networks is minimum five years so the available long data series will provide an opportunity to perform spatially and temporally very detailed climatological investigations in relation to urban environment.